# Aortic Stenosis
Severe: peak velocity >4m/s, mean pressure grad >40mmHg, area <1cm^2
-- ABCs: patients with low BP 2/2 hypovolemia or distributive shock can get phenylephrine (will not increase afterload the heart sees)
-- Chart Check: prior echos, prior valve surgery
-- HPI Intake: angina, DOE, syncope
-- Can't Miss: cardiogenic shock or syncope 2/2 AS
-- Admission Orders: TTE
-- Initial Treatment to Consider: optimize volume and afterload reduction; discuss with CT surgery if feel patient may need eval while inpatient
-- History: *** symptoms, h/o syncope, prior echos, surgeries, performance status
-- Clinical: *** angina, syncope, dyspnea, HFpEF, vWF def - bleeding
-- Exam: *** systolic crescendo-decrescendo mumur (severe AS is late peaking with soft S2); radiate to carotid (LR 7.5), slow carotid upstroke (LR 9.2)
-- Data: *** echo, peak velocity, mean pressure gradient, area of valve
-- Etiology/DDx: *** senile/calcific, bicuspid valve, rhematic
The patient's HPI is notable for ***. Exam showed ***. Labwork and data were notable for ***. Taken together, the patient's presentation is most concerning for ***, with a differential including ***.
-- f/u TTE if any change in symptoms (usually q6 months for severe AS)
-- Exercise stress testing if asx with severe AS on TTE
-- TAVR clearance: TTE, CTA chest protocol, dental clearance
-- Preload: *** diuretics if c/f HF; narrow range - prone to under and overfill
-- Afterload: *** ACE/ARB to reduce HTN (low and slow); avoid vasodilators (hydral, nifedipine, nitro)
-- Aortic valve replacement if: severe and symptomatic OR severe and asx with EF<50% or already undergoing another cardiac surgery
PDF coming soon!
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a surgically treated disease - medical management only addresses a patient's symptoms. When those symptoms begin in severe AS, the prognosis is poor. Severe AS is based on TTE findings, including: peak velocity >4m/s, mean pressure grad >40mmHg, area <1cm^2. In general, trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is non-inferior to surgical-aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Patients with mechanical valves requires warfarin, those who have TAVR procedure are okay with just ASA or clopidogrel.